The tibia (shinbone) shaft fracture, is the most common fractured long bone in your body. The long bones include the femur, humerus, tibia, and fibula. A tibial shaft fracture occurs along the length of the bone, below the knee and above the ankle.
Because it typically takes a major force to break a long bone, other injuries often occur with these types of fractures.
The lower leg is made up of two bones: the tibia and fibula. The tibia is the larger of the two bones. It supports most of your weight and is an important part of both the knee joint and ankle joint.
Types of Tibia Shaft Fractures
The tibia can break in several ways. The severity of the fracture usually depends on the amount of force that caused the break. The fibula is often broken as well.
Common types of tibial fractures include:
Stable fracture: This type of fracture is barely out of place. The broken ends of the bones basically line up correctly and are aligned. In a stable fracture, the bones usually stay in place during healing.
Displaced fracture: When a bone breaks and is displaced, the broken ends are separated and do not line up. These types of fractures often require surgery to put the pieces back together.
Transverse fracture: This type of fracture has a horizontal fracture line. This fracture can be unstable, especially if the fibula is also broken.
Oblique fracture: This type of fracture has an angled pattern and is typically unstable. If an oblique fracture is initially stable or minimally displaced, over time it can become more out of place. This is especially true if the fibula is not broken.
Spiral fracture: This type of fracture is caused by a twisting force. The result is a spiral-shaped fracture line about the bone, like a staircase. Spiral fractures can be displaced or stable, depending on how much force causes the fracture.
Comminuted fracture: This type of fracture is very unstable. The bone shatters into three or more pieces.
Open fracture: When broken bones break through the skin, they are called open or compound fractures. For example, when a pedestrian is struck by the bumper of a moving car, the broken tibia may protrude through a tear in the skin and other soft tissues.
Open fractures often involve much more damage to the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments. They have a higher risk for complications and take a longer time to heal.
Closed fracture: With this injury, the broken bones do not break the skin. Although the skin is not broken, internal soft tissues can still be badly damaged. In extreme cases, excessive swelling may cut off blood supply and lead to muscle death, and in rare cases, amputation.